It looks like everything was connected correctly (although I couldn't see where the cables from the mixer to the amp were plugged in on the mixer. They should be to the "main out" positions.). You are good at the speaker. The other connectors that you pointed to are Speakon connectors, You can use them or the 1/4 inch plugs. Either is OK.
Now, the mixer.
I'm with Slej, that's the first place to look. Or the mic or cable.
First, for the protection of your ears shut the amp off for the next few experiments.
For anyone playing along at home, here is the mixer manual http://www.behringer.com/EN/downloads/p ... 7_M_EN.pdf
and here's a big picture of it: http://www.behringer.com/EN/images/ligh ... nt_XXL.png
Now, your mic is an SM58 right? So it's a dynamic mic. That means you don't have to think about phantom power.
What is the "gain" control set at (it's the one closest to the XLR plug that your mic is connected to)? Each input has one, and it's used to get the level in the ballpark. Start talking into your mic, and turn the gain control up (clockwise) until
(A) you notice the "clip" light start to flash with your voice.
(B) you run out of adjustment on the gain knob.
If B, then there is no signal getting to the mixer (or it is faulty. Try on a few other input channels)
Suspect the mic or cable. Try another if you have them.
If A, then signal is getting into the mixer. Turn the gain control down a bit until the clip light *just* stops flashing. This is a good place to leave it.
Now that we know the signal is getting in, lets see where it goes.
Each channel strip has a "mute" button. It should be up, and the mute light should be off. (obvious sounding, I know, but it catches some people)
There are a set of routing switches beside the sliding fader at the bottom of the channel strip.
For a basic setup, the "main" should be pressed. That will allow the signal to get from this channel to the main mix output fader on the right side of the mixer.
Now, push the channel fader up to about the middle of it's range.
At this point, is you start moving the main mix fader up (and keep talking to your mic), you should start seeing some action on the output level lights on the right side, just above the main mix fader.
If you do, then pull the main mix back down to zero, and turn the amp back on.
Now gently slide the main mix up and listen...
No: is the level control on the amp turned up? Are the cables connected on the amp correctly?