Why is learning scales important? And which one would be the best to learn first?
They're great for helping you learn the fretboard.
Start with the major scale - 2 octaves, 6th string root then 5th string root. Then learn major and minor pentatonics in all 5 shapes - great for soloing. Then learn harmonic and melodic minors, again 2 octaves 6th and 5th string roots - great for doing something different. Move onto whole tone and half-whole tone/ whole-half tone.
To be honest, learning scales will keep you busy for several years. Far better to learn a few then play songs or write.
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They are important because they are the foundation of music itself through which intervals and chords/harmony can be realized. I say start with Major and minor scales:)
In practical terms, two scales are more important than any others.
The major scale is the standard yardstick of music. We use it to analyze all other scales, and to build all chord formulas.
The pentatonic scale is the only one that is found in the music of every culture on earth. Learning that will at least let you sound not awful in any style of music.
After that, it depends on personal preference. Learn what they use in the music you listen to - that might be Phrygian, gypsy minor, whatever. Eventually you want to learn anything you can apply to music - but it's more fun to learn stuff you can use right away in the style you like.
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